Azerbaijan in The Second World War (1941-1945) Failure of Hitler !
Azerbaijan’s contribution to the Second World War is truly huge. The Azerbaijanis are in first place in terms of the number of inhabitants participating in the war, by percentage: every fifth citizen of the Azerbaijani SSR took a part in the war or helped in certain actions during the battles. Whereas, the population of the Azerbaijani SSR in 1941 was only 3.4 million people, more than 700 thousand sons and daughters of Azerbaijan took part in this Great War!
From the beginning of World War II, Hitler’s Germany was undergoing through the oil deficit. Germany was quite strong on the western front, which quickly conquered the Netherlands and Belgium, and soon France. From the beginning of 1940, Hitler has already begun to create the plans of oil fields’ conquest. There are only few oil fields in Europe! Not enough at all! Prior to the outbreak of World War II, Führer signed a trade agreement with Romania, which included the Oil Transaction. However, this was not enough for Hitler…
After the attack on Poland and its final occupation, Hitler was extremely encouraged by the successes of his Army, because it was really amazing. The Nazis have been gaining this power since A. Hitler came to power in 1933. First of all, what Hitler did in 1933 – was strengthening of the army. The army, which was defeated even during the First World War, and underwent through the crisis in the 1920s, suddenly turns into the one of the most powerful in the world, in Europe, and even more so. Hitler has advanced technology and training facilities, discipline is at the highest level. The army of the Third Reich was then compared with robots: everything was so accurate and thoughtful!
War was going on! Breaking the Polish army (which was not inferior in Europe at that time, and was also strong enough), and defeating Poland in one month, Hitler, inspired by success, divided his troops into three directions – South, Center and North!
South – Kiev;
Center – Moscow (first Minsk);
North – Leningrad
Hitler invites the USSR to the battle!
In 1941, the USSR accepts the battle and sets about to defend. Hitler’s army was still achieving the successes in the Eastern Europe. Having entered the Belarus (which, at the beginning, played the role of the Buffer Zone), the Third Reich Army quite easily copes with the still not well-grouped Soviet Army. But the old wound, lack of fuel, is still not closed. Hitler understands everything and thinks ahead, his main goal and solution of the problem is an occupation of Baku and its oil ricks. At the same time, the capital of the Azerbaijani SSR is in peacetime. Baku is improving an industry, new factories are opening, and the city of chemical production – Sumgait is preparing to build. In the oil fields of the village of Surakhani, both women and men are working.
No one even thinks that Hitler is preparing a plan.
However, the Führer first tries to solve the fuel problem in Germany. Having opened two factories in Hitler’s beloved city, the miners ’town – Gelsenkirchen, the Germans are trying to get fuel by refining coal, which was abundant there. The miners of Germany work day and night, pour tanks and fill warehouses, “feed” the planes. Nevertheless, this still was not enough: there was still little fuel. Moreover, in terms of quality, it generally did not meet the standards that engines set.
By 1942, Germany was creeping up close to Moscow. However, the courage and unity of the Soviet Army throws Hitler’s army 200 km back. Hitler has difficult times, no fuel! By 1942, oil was only a month away! Stocks are exhausted! Germany is beginning to suffer losses.
Hitler still dreams about Baku, the biggest oil reservoir in Europe.
At the birthday party of Adolf Hitler, the Führer was presented with a huge cake, of which Baku was the tidbit. Here is the head of the Third Reich serving a neatly sliced slice of pie with cream peaks, on which is promising for the people of Germany and meaningful for Adolf himself – “Baku”. Despite the fact that Hitler, with incredible pleasure, tasted this piece, which had been covered with chocolate before, referring to the wealth of Azerbaijan, having oil, he choked on this piece and did not get the desired Baku!
At the same time, in Baku, about 50 thousand Azerbaijanis decided to go to the front voluntarily, and more than 650 thousand were called up for service. Soon, more than 300 thousand of which will not come back. In Azerbaijan, the development of weapons and high-quality fuel, which improves the operation of equipment, is in full swing. Baku factories operate at full capacity, producing shells for the famous Katyusha, and other military equipment.
The prominent Azerbaijani military scientist, chemist and academician Yusif Mammadaliev – is developing a new type of weapon “The Bottle with burning liquid,” which is recognized as the “Molotov Cocktail” by the whole world. How did it happen that the weapon was named not in honor of its founder, the great Azerbaijani, but in honor of the chairperson of the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR?
Mamedaliev created the mixture based on the process of toluene production. These are raw materials for explosives. At that time, during the war, no one knew that the professor of the academy, Yusif Mammadaliev, created the explosive device. And the name of this mixture was accepted by British Prime Minister W. Churchill, who was the first who knew about this discovery by the People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs Vyacheslav Molotov.
128 natives of the Azerbaijani SSR became the heroes of the Soviet Union, 14 of them were awarded with full knights of the Order of Glory. About 172 thousand were awarded with military orders and medals.
Hero of the Soviet Union, Major General of the tank forces – Azi Aslanov showed unprecedented heroism in the battlefields. For valiant service, he was awarded with two Orders of Lenin, three Orders of the Red Banner, the Order of Suvorov of the 2nd degree, the Order of Alexander Nevsky, the Order of the Patriotic War of the 1st degree, and was also twice awarded with the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.
The senior sergeant – Israfil Mammadov, including the assistant platoon commander of the 42nd Rifle Regiment, was the first in the Azerbaijan SSR to be awarded with the title of Hero of the Soviet Union for the work done by him. December 3, 1941, a group led by Israfil Mammadov, took the battle near the village of Pustynka (near Novgorod), repelled 4 attacks of superior enemy forces, entered into hand-to-hand combat and was able to maintain a position. Israfil Mammadov, personally, defeated 70 enemy soldiers and officers.
Adil Guliyev, Gafur Mammadov, Jamil Akhmedov, Gerai Asadov, Museib Bagirov, Melik Maharramov, Zia Buniyatov and many, many other sons of the Motherland, whom the people of Azerbaijan are still proud of and honor their memory.